Basic Essay Structure
On the Written portion of the TOEFL, you
will be asked to write an essay that is more than one paragraph long.
The reason for this is that in U.S. academic culture, essays need to be
several paragraphs long in order for students to express their ideas
clearly and for instructors to determine whether or not students
understand the material.
Knowing how to organize your ideas in such long essays is very
important for academic success.
Generally, academic essays have a similar format. They are at least
five paragraphs long, although often they are much longer. Also, the
basic structure of each of these paragraphs is the same as that which we
have already studied. In addition, the paragraphs in the U.S. academic
essay can be divided into three basic kinds: (1) the
introductory paragraph, (2) the body paragraphs, and
(3) the concluding paragraph.
The first paragraph of the academic essay is the one that is usually
the most different from the basic paragraph that we have studied. In
Lessons #1 and #2, we saw that a basic paragraph had a topic sentence as
its first sentence, followed by supporting sentences with supporting
details, and these (sometimes) followed by a concluding sentence.
In the multi-paragraph academic essay, however, the structure is a
little different. Like the basic paragraph, the introductory paragraph
opens with a very general statement about the topic, and is often
followed by some supporting examples, but the paragraph then finishes
with a narrow statement about the topic. This narrow statement is called
the main thesis. Here is a short example of an introductory
| Throughout human history, the physical universe has
often presented dangers to explorers. For example, when
primitive humans left their tribal villages to search for food
and water, they risked death or injury from dangerous animals.
Later, when people sailed the oceans in search of new lands for
settlement or trade, many died in terrible storms. Similarly,
the ocean of outer space has many dangers, but it also has
several unique challenges for explorers.
Notice how the first sentence, Throughout human history, nature
has often presented dangers to explorers,is a very general statment
about the topic, which is dangers in exploration. The next two sentences
give some supporting examples of this intital sentence. However, the
third sentence of the paragraph gives an example that contrasts in some
way with the previous two sentences. Then, the final sentence does
something new: It introduces a specific example of the general
topic. This specific topic is the main thesis of the entire
essay; that is, the rest of the essay will focus on this specific topic,
which in this case is several unique challenges for explorers.
This main thesis functions like the topic sentence of the
basic paragraph, which we have studied in Lessons #1 and #2. It is
the most important sentence of the essay.
Notice how the main thesis is worded. It includes the phrase,
several unique challlenges.This raises a question in the reader's
mind, namely: "What are these challenges?" The reader will find out what
some of the challenges are in the body of the essay, which we
will study next.
The body portion of the essay is the largest portion. Typically, it
has three paragraphs, but it might have two paragraphs and of course it
can have many more than three. Each of these paragraphs usually has a
topic sentence and several supporting sentences, just like the basic
paragraph we have studied. Here is an example of three body paragraphs
(which together continue the essay that we have started studying above):
| One of the challenges that is unique to space is the
fact that space is a vacuum, which is a risk for various
reasons. First, in a vacuum there is no atmosphere and therefore
no air pressure. Without air pressure, the human body has no
oxygen to sustain itself. After too many minutes without oxygen,
a person would lose consciousness and eventually die. Also, in a
vacuum a person's blood will gradually begin to boil. Finally,
without an atmosphere, the rays of the Sun can cause radiation
Another difficulty that is unique to outer space is
the presence of meteors and micrometeors. These are pieces of
rock and metal that are left over from the formation of the
solar system. Many of these objects travel at very high speeds.
Under the Earth's blanket of air, people are usually protected
from metor impacts. However, in space, people and spaceships are
vulnerable to collisions with meteors. It is true that the
chance of metor impacts is relatively small, but if even a small
micrometeor happens to collide with a spacecraft, it could cause
A third special challenge involved with the
environment of space involves the fact that it is very difficult
to find life-sustaining water off the Earth. For example, the
planet Mercury, which is closest to the Sun, is too hot to have
water, so space travelers must take water from Earth if they
want to visit Mercury. A similar situation exists on the planet
Venus, second from the Sun. This planet is likewise too hot for
water to exist. Similarly, the fourth planet, Mars, is too cold
and dry, although there may be some water frozen at the north
and south poles of the planet.
(Note that usually we do not put extra spaces between individual
paragraphs, as has been done above. The spaces between the paragraphs
above are only for study purposes.)
Recall that the main thesis statement of this essay said, Similarly,
the ocean of outer space has many dangers, but it also has several
unique challenges for explorers. You can see how the body of the
essay is organized according to the challenges that are mentioned
in the main thesis. The first body paragraph discusses the dangers of
space vacuum, the second body paragraph gives information about meteors,
and the third paragraph mentions the fact that water is very difficult
to find on other planets.
The concluding paragraph does not always appear in an academic
essay. In particular, on the Written portion of the TOEFL, which lasts
30 minutes, there may not be enough time for you to include a formal
concluding paragraph. However, here is an example of a concluding
paragraph for you. Notice how it summarizes the main points of the
preceding body paragraphs:
| There are other difficulties involved with space
exploration, but these are three of the most important ones. In
summary, without adequate air pressure, the unprotected human
body may be seriously harmed in a vacuum. In addition, meteors
can threaten human life and damage spacecraft. Finally, the lack
of water in space means that human life may have a difficult
time surviving on other planets. As one can see, the challenges
of space travel are rather different from terrestrial dangers.
Here is another example of a concluding paragraph:
| As mentioned above, the Earth's natural environment
has often presented dangers to explorers. Dangerous animals,
vast oceans, and violent weather have presented risks to humans.
However, the new frontier of outer space, with its vacuum,
meteors, and lack of water, presents unique challenges to people
who desire to explore it.
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