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TOEFL Vocabulary

Sample TOEFL Reading Questions

Questions 1-9
In 1972, a century after the first national park in the United States was established at
Yellowstone, legislation was passed to create the National Marine Sanctuaries Program.
The intent of this legislation was to provide protection to selected coastal habitats similar
To that existing for land areas designated as national parks. The designation of an areas
5) a marine sanctuary indicates that it is a protected area, just as a national park is. People
are permitted to visit and observe there, but living organisms and their environments may
not be harmed or removed.

The National Marine Sanctuaries Program is administered by the National Oceanic
and Atmospheric Administration, a branch of the United States Department of Commerce.
10) Initially, 70 sites were proposed as candidates for sanctuary status. Two and a half decades
later, only fifteen sanctuaries had been designated, with half of these established after
1978. They range in size from the very small (less than I square kilometer) Fagatele Bay
National Marine Sanctuary in American Samoa to the Monterey Bay National Marine
Sanctuary in California, extending over 15,744 square kilometers.

15) The National Marine Sanctuaries Program is a crucial part of new management
practices in which whole communities of species, and not just individual species, are
offered some degree of protection from habitat degradation and overexploitation. Only
in this way can a reasonable degree of marine species diversity be maintained in a setting
that also maintains the natural interrelationships that exist among these species.
20) Several other types of marine protected areas exist in the United States and other
countries. The National Estuarine Research Reserve System, managed by the United
States government, includes 23 designated and protected estuaries. Outside the United
States, marine protected-area programs exist as marine parks, reserves, and preserves.
Over 100 designated areas exist around the periphery of the Carbbean Sea. Others range
25) from the well-known Australian Great Barrer Reef Marine Park to lesser-known parks
in countries such as Thailand and Indonesia, where tourism is placing growing pressures
on fragile coral reef systems. As state, national, and international agencies come to
recognize the importance of conserving marine biodiversity, marine projected areas.
whether as sanctuaries, parks, or estuarine reserves, will play an increasingly important
role in preserving that diversity.

1. What does the passage mainly discuss?
(A) Differences among marine parks, sanctuaries, and reserves
(B) Various marine conservation programs
(C) International agreements on coastal protection
 (D) Similarities between land and sea protected environments
2. The word “intent” in line 3 is closest in meaning to
(A) repetition
(B) approval
(C) goal
(D) revision

3. The word “administered” in line 8 is closest in meaning to
(A) managed
(B) recognized
(C) opposed
(D) justified
4. The word “these” in line 11 refers to
(A) sites
(B) candidates
(C) decades
(D) sanctuaries
5. The passage mentions the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary (lines 13-14) as an
example of a sanctuary that
(A) is not well know
(B) covers a large area
(C) is smaller than the Fagatele Bay National Marine Sanctuary
(D) was not originally proposed for sanctuary status
6. According to the passage, when was the National Marine Sanctuaries Program established?
(A) Before 1972
(B) After 1987
(C) One hundred years before national parks were established
(D) One hundred years after Yellowstone National Park was established

7. According to the passage, all of the following are achievements of the National Marine Sanctuaries Program EXCEPT
(A) the discovery of several new marine organisms
(B) the preservation of connections between individual marine species
(C) the protection of coastal habitats
(D) the establishment of areas where the public
can observe marine life
8. The word “periphery” in line 24 is closest in
meaning to
(A) depth
(B) landmass
(C) warm habitat
(D) outer edge
9. The passage mentions which of the following as
a threat to marine areas outside the United
(A) Limitations in financial support
(B) The use of marine species as food
(C) Variability of the climate
(D) Increases in tourism

Questions 10-17
From their inception, most rural neighborhoods in colonial North America included
at least one carpenter, joiner, sawyer, and cooper in woodworking; a weaver and a tailor  
for clothing production; a tanner, currier, and cordwainer (shoemaker) for fabricating leather
objects; and a blacksmith for metalwork, Where stone was the local building material, a
5) mason was sure to appear on the list of people who paid taxes. With only an apprentice as
an assistant, the rural artisan provided the neighborhood with common goods from furniture
to shoes to farm equipment in exchange for cash or for “goods in kind” from the customer’s
field, pasture, or dairy. Sometimes artisans transformed material provided by the customer
wove cloth of yam spun at the farm from the wool of the family sheep; made chairs or tables
10) from wood cut in the customer’s own woodlot; produced shoes or leather breeches from
cow, deer, or sheepskin tanned on the farm.
Like their farming neighbors, rural artisans were part of an economy seen, by one
historian, as “an orchestra conducted by nature.” Some tasks could not be done in the winter,
other had to be put off during harvest time, and still others waited on raw materials that were
15) only produced seasonally. As the days grew shorter, shop hours kept pace, since few artisans
could afford enough artificial light to continue work when the Sun went down. To the best
of their ability, colonial artisans tried to keep their shops as efficient as possible and to
regularize their schedules and methods of production for the best return on their investment
in time, tools, and materials, While it is pleasant to imagine a woodworker, for example,
20) carefully matching lumber, joining a chest together without resort to nails or glue, and
applying all thought and energy to carving beautiful designs on the finished piece, the time
required was not justified unless the customer was willing to pay extra for the quality—
and few in rural areas were, Artisans, therefore, often found it necessary to employ as
many shortcuts and economics as possible while still producing satisfactory products.

10. What aspect of rural colonial North America
does the passage mainly discuss?
(A) Farming practices
(B) The work of artisans
(C) The character of rural neighborhoods
(D) Types of furniture that were popular
11. The word “inception” in line 1 is closest in
 meaning to
(A) investigation
(B) location
(C) beginning
(D) records
12. The word “fabricating” in line 3 is closest in
meaning to
(A) constructing
(B) altering
(C) selecting
(D) demonstrating
13. It can be inferied from the from the passage
that the use of artificial light in colonial times
(A) especially helpful to woodworkers
(B) popular in rural areas
(C) continuous in winter
(D) expensive
14. Why did colonial artisans want to “regularize
their schedules their schedules” (line 18)?
(A) To enable them to produce high quality
(B) To enable them to duplicate an item many
(C) To impress their customers
(D) To keep expenses low
15. The phrase “resort to” in line 20 is closest in
meaning to
(A) protecting with
(B) moving toward
(C) manufacturing
(D) using
16. The word “few’ in lines 23 refers to
(A) woodworkers
(B) finished pieces
(C) customers
(D) chests
17. It can inferred that the artisans referred to in
the passage usually produced products that
(A) simple
(B) delicate
(C) beautifully decorated
(D) exceptionally long-lasting

Questions 18-28
Cities develop as a result of functions that they can perform. Some functions result
directly from the ingenuity of the citizenry, but most functions result from the needs of
the local area and of the surrounding hinterland (the region that supplies goods to the
city and to which the city furnishes services and other goods). Geographers often make
5) a distinction between the situation and the site of a city. Situation refers to the general
position in relation to the surrounding region, whereas site involves physical
characteristics of the specific location. Situation is normally much more important to
the continuing prosperity of a city. if a city is well situated in regard to its hinterland, its
development is much more likely to continue. Chicago, for example, possesses an almost
10) unparalleled situation: it is located at the southern end of a huge lake that forces east-west
transportation lines to be compressed into its vicinity, and at a meeting of significant land
and water transport routes. It also overlooks what is one of the world’s finest large
farming regions. These factors ensured that Chicago would become a great city regardless
of the disadvantageous characteristics of the available site, such as being prone to flooding
15) during thunderstorm activity.
Similarly, it can be argued that much of New York City’s importance stems from its
early and continuing advantage of situation. Philadephia and Boston both originated at
about the same time as New York and shared New York’s location at the western end of
one of the world’s most important oceanic trade routes, but only New York possesses an
20) easy-access functional connection (the Hudson-Mohawk lowland) to the vast Midwestern
hinterland. This account does not alone explain New York’s primacy, but it does include
several important factors. Among the many aspects of situation that help to explain why
some cities grow and others do not, original location on a navigable waterway seems
particularly applicable. Of course, such characteristic as slope, drainage, power
25) resources, river crossings, coastal shapes, and other physical characteristics help to
determine city location, but such factors are normally more significant in early stages
of city development than later.  

18. What does the passage mainly discuss?
(A) The development of trade routes through
United States cities
(B) Contrasts in settlement patterns in United
(C) Historical differences among three large
United States cities
(D) The importance of geographical situation
in the growth of United States cities
19. The word “ingenuity” in line 2. is closest in
meaning to
(A) wealth
(B) resourcefulness
(C) traditions
(D) organization
20. The passage suggests that a geographer would
consider a city’s soil type part of its
(A) hinterland
(B) situation
(C) site
(D) function
21. According to the passage, a city’s situation is
more important than its site in regard to the
(A) long-term growth and prosperity
(B) ability to protect its citizenry
(C) possession of favorable weather conditions
(D) need to import food supplies
22. The author mentions each of the following as
an advantage of Chicago’s location EXCEPT
 (A) hinterland
(B) nearness to a large lake
(C) position in regard to transport routes
(D) flat terrain
23. The word “characteristics” in line 14 is closest
 in meaning to
  (A) choices
(B) attitudes
(C) qualities
(D) inhabitants
24. The primary purpose of paragraph 1 is to
(A) summarize past research and introduce
anew study
(B) describe a historical period
(C) emphasize the advantages of one theory
over another
(D) define a term and illustrate it with an
25. According to the passage, Philadelphia and
Boston are similar to New York City in
(A) size of population
(B) age
(C) site
(D) availability of rail transportation
26. The word “functional” in line 20 is closest in
meaning to
(A) alternate
(B) unknown
(C) original
(D) usable
27. The word “it” in line 21 refers to
 (A) account
(B) primacy
(C) connection
(D) hinterland
28. The word “significant” in line 26 is closest in
meaning to
(A) threatening
(B) meaningful
(C) obvious
(D) available

Questions 29-10
The largest of the giant gas planets, Jupiter, with a volume 1,300 times greater than
Earth’s, contains more than twice the mass of all the other planets combined. It is thought
to be a gaseous and fluid planet without solid surfaces, Had it been somewhat more massive,
Jupiter might have attained internal temperatures as high as the ignition point for nuclear
5) reactions, and it would have flamed as a star in its own right. Jupiter and the other giant
planets are of a low-density type quite distinct from the terrestrial planets: they are
composed predominantly of such substances as hydrogen, helium, ammonia, and methane,
unlike terrestrial planets. Much of Jupiter’s interior might be in the form of liquid, metallic
hydrogen, Normally, hydrogen is a gas, but under pressures of millions of kilograms per
10) square centimeter, which exist in the deep interior of Jupiter, the hydrogen atoms might
lock together to form a liquid with the properties of a metal. Some scientists believe that
the innermost core of Jupiter might be rocky, or metallic like the core of Earth.
Jupiter rotates very fast, once every 9.8 hours. As a result, its clouds, which are composed
 largely of frozen and liquid ammonia, have been whipped into alternating dark and bright
15) bands that circle the planet at different speeds in different latitudes. Jupiter’s puzzling
Great Red Spot changes size as it hovers in the Southern Hemisphere. Scientists speculate
it might be a gigantic hurricane, which because of its large size (the Earth could easily fit
inside it), lasts for hundreds of years.
Jupiter gives off twice as much heat as it receives from the Sun. Perhaps this is primeval
20) heat or beat generated by the continued gravitational contraction of the planet. Another
starlike characteristic of Jupiter is its sixteen natural satellites, which, like a miniature model
of the Solar System, decrease in density with distance—from rocky moons close to Jupiter
to icy moons farther away. If Jupiter were about 70 times more massive, it would have
become a star, Jupiter is the best-preserved sample of the early solar nebula, and with its
satellites, might contain the most important clues about the origin of the Solar System.

29. The word “attained” in line 4 is closest in
meaning to
(A) attempted
(B) changed
(C) lost
(D) reached
30. The word “flamed” in line 5 is closest in
meaning to
 (A) burned
(B) divided
(C) fallen
(D) grown
31. The word “they” in line 6 refers to
 (A) nuclear reactions
(B) giant planets
(C) terrestrial
(D) substances
32. According to the passage, hydrogen can
become a metallic-like liquid when it is
 (A) extremely hot
(B) combined with helium
(C) similar atmospheres
(D) metallic cores
33. According to the passage, some scientists
believe Jupiter and Earth are similar in that
they both have
 (A) solid surfaces
(B) similar masses
(C) similar atmospheres
 (D) metallic cores
34. The clouds surrounding Jupiter are mostly
composed of
(A) ammonia
(B) helium
(C) hydrogen
(D) methane
35. It can be inferred from the passage that the
appearance of alternating bands circling Jupiter
is caused by
(A) the Great Red Spot
(B) heat from the Sun
(C) the planet’s fast rotation
(D) Storms from the planet’s Southern
36. The author uses the word “puzzling” in line 15
to suggest that the Great Red Spot is
(A) the only spot of its kind
(B) not well understood
(C) among the largest of such spots
(D) a problem for the planet’s continued
37. Paragraph 3 supports which of the following
(A) Jupiter gives off twice as much heat as the
(B) Jupiter has a weaker gravitational force
than the other planets.
(C) Scientists believe that Jupiter was once a star.
(D) Scientists might learn about the beginning
of the Solar System by Studying Jupiter.
38. Why does the author mention primeval heat
(lines 19-20) ?
(A) To provide evidence that Jupiter is older
than the Sun
(B) To provide evidence that Jupiter is older
than the other planets
(C) To suggest a possible explanation for the
number of satellites that Jupiter has
(D) To suggest a possible source of the
quantity of heat that Jupiter gives off
39. According to the passage, Jupiter’s most
distant moon is
(A) the least dense
(B) the largest
(C) warm on the surface
(D) very rocky on the surface
40. Which of the following statements is supported
by the passage?
(A) If Jupiter had fewer satellites, it would be
easier for scientists to study the planet
(B) If Jupiter had had more mass, it would
have developed internal nuclear reactions.
(C) If Jupiter had been smaller, it would have
become a terrestrial planet.
(D) if Jupiter were larger, it would give off
much less heat

 Questions 41-50
The tern “art deco” has come to encompass three distinct but related design trends
of the 1920’s and 1930’s. The first was what is frequently referred to as “zigzag
moderne” –the exotically ornamental style of such skyscrapers as the Chrysler Building
in New York City and related structures such as the Paramount Theater in Oakland,
5) California The word “zigzag” alludes to the geometric and stylized ornamentation of
zigzags, angular patterns, abstracted plant and animal motifs, sunbursts, astrological
imagery, formalized fountains, and related themes that were applied in mosaic relief.
and mural form to the exterior and interior of the buildings. Many of these buildings were
shaped in the ziggurat form, a design resembling an ancient Mesopotamian temple tower
10) that recedes in progressively smaller stages to the summit, creating a staircase-like effect.
The second manifestation of art deco was the 1930’s streamlined moderne” style—a
Futuristic-looking aerodynamic style of rounded corners and horizontal bands known as
“speed stripes.” In architecture, these elements were frequently accompanied by round
windows, extensive use of glass block, and flat rooftops.
15) The third style, referred to as cither “ international stripped classicism,” or simply
“ classical moderne,” also came to the forefront during the Depression, a period of severe
economic difficult in the 1930’s. This was amore conservative style, blending a
simplified modernistic style with a more austere form of geometric and stylized relief
sculpture and other ornament, including interior murals. May buildings in this style
20) were erected nationwide through government programs during the Depression .
Although art deco in its many forms was largely perceived as thoroughly modern,
it was strongly influenced by the decorative arts movements that immediately preceded
it. For example, like “art nouveau” (1890-1910), art deco also used plant motifs, but
regularized the forms into abstracted repetitive patterns rather than presenting them as
25) flowing, asymmetrical foliage, Like the Viennese craftspeople of the Wiener Werkstatte,
art deco designers worked with exotic materials, geometricized shapes, and colorfully
ornate patterns. Furthermore, like the artisans of the Arts and Crafts Movement in England
and the United States, art deep practitioners considered it their mission to transform the
domestic environment through well-designed furniture and household accessories.

41. What aspect of art deco does the passage
mainly discuss?
(A) The influence of art deco on the design of
furniture and household accessories
(B) Ways in which government programs
encouraged the development of art deco
(C) Architectural manifestations of art deco
during the 1920’s and 1930’s
(D) Reasons for the popularity of art deco in
New York and California
42. The word “encompass” in line 1 is closest in
meaning to
(A) separate
(B) include
(C) replace
(D) enhance
43. The phrase “The first” in line 2 refers to
(A) the term “art deco”
(B) design trends
(C) the 1920’s and 1930’s
(D) skyscrapers
44. In line 9, the author mentions “an ancient
Mesopotamian temple tower ” in order to
(A) describe the exterior shape of certain “art
deco” buildings
(B) explain the differences between ancient
and modern architectural steles
(C) emphasize the extent of architectural
(D) argue for a return to more traditional
architectural design
45. The streamlined moderne style is characterized
by all of the following EXCEPT
(A) animal motifs
(B) flat roofs
(C) round windows
(D) “speed stripes”
46. The phrase “came to the forefront” in line 16 is
closest in meaning to
(A) grew in complexity
(B) went through a process
(C) changed its approach
(D) became important
47. According to the passage, which of the
following statements most accurately describes
the relationship between art deco and art
(A) They were art forms that competed with
each other for government support during
the Depression era.
(B) They were essentially the same art form.
(C) Art nouveau preceded art deco and
influenced it.
(D) Art deco became important in the United
States while art nouveau became popular in
48. According to the passage, a building having an
 especially ornate appearance would most
 probably have been designed in the style of
(A) zigzag moderne
(B) streamlined moderne
(C) classical moderne
(D) the Arts and Crafts Movement
49. According to the passage, which of the
following design trends is known by more than
one name ?
(A) Zigzag moderne
(B) Streamlined moderne
(C) International stripped classicism
(D) Arts and Crafts Movement
50. The passage is primarily developed as
(A) the historical chronology of a movement
(B) a description of specific buildings that
became famous for their unusual beauty
(C) an analysis of various trends within an
artistic movement
(D) an argument of the advantages of one
artistic form over another


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